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Science Essentials

What is Science?
The intellectual and practical activity on the systematic study of the structure and behavior of physical and natural world through observation and experimentation

What is the scientific method?
The scientific method is a technique widely used for investigating, achieving more knowledge, as well as correcting and combining previous knowledge.

Source (Picture): Scientific Methods. (n.d.). Retrieved January 5, 2016, from

About our project

What is it about?
Our project involves comparing the refraction of light in different materials using lasers.
By measuring the angle of refraction, we are able to compare the speed of light through various mediums.

The proof is Snell's law where the angle of refraction is directly proportional to the speed of light, the wider the angle of refraction, the slower light travels through the medium.

  • θ1 is the angle between the incident light beam and the surface normal
  • θ2 is the angle between the departing light beam and the surface normal
  • v1 is the speed of light in the first material
  • v2 is the speed of light in the second material
  • n1 is the index of refraction of the first material
  • n2 is the index of refraction of the second material
Here is an example of a laser beam bending in gelatin.

Using a Laser to Measure the Speed of Light in Gelatin. (n.d.). Retrieved February 23, 2016, from